The consequentialist ethic is definitely a moral theory. This theory is based on the theory, that the moral benefit of an action is based upon consequences. Decisions to do something are taken based on the consequences, that favour virtually all either one individual or one group. The main objective is the maximisation of happiness. Consequently, moral ethics is based on the obtaining of good results. The consequentialist ethic is founded on two main and various theories. The 1st one is based upon the obtaining of very good consequences and rewards for an individual. This is actually the Egoism. The second one focuses upon the benefits for the group or society of the individual. This can be the Utilitarianism.
Jeremy Bentham has described the human actions in this extract:
The consequentialist ethic is actually a support the Eastern textile market. Asian textile https://testmyprep.com/lesson/guidelines-on-how-to-write-an-interview-essay manufacturers have a strong competitive advantage compared to Western producers. Certainly, the Asian labour is cheap in comparison to Western labour. It ruined the textile sector in the West. Wages cannot be lowered to complement competition from Asia, prices are not lowered, either at the risk of bankruptcy. The best buyers selected Asian textile goods, because they are less expensive. This vicious circle destroyed the economy of western textiles. Western manufacturers have two choices to make it through. Either specializes in market segments certainly not occupied by their Asian opponents (market demanding high quality items). Or relocate their development to East Asia to reap the benefits of cheap labour. Usually they are doomed to disappear.
This is due to the choice created by the Asian makers, who distribute low wages. This decision is regular consequentialist. In fact, the Asian maker that uses the inexpensive workforce that cares because of its own benefit. In acquiring this decision, it ignores the results for competitors and for its employees. It is merely based on its income to arrive, either the great consequences of his actions for him. He as a result considers this action as "good", since it will be profitable.
This is a superb example of egoism. This situation the Asian producer may be the individual. His decision to pay for its workforce considerably more weakly than its opponents is its action. The seek out maximum income, symbolizes the confident consequence of his actions. The egoism in this instance, is characterized by the actual fact that situation benefits only for him.
It is also an example of utilitarianism. The seek out personal gain is performing in the fascination of the group. This contributes to the effect of "Invisible Side" enunciated by Adam Smith.
In doing this, the producer increases his personal advantage, but as well that of his spouse and children (Wage increase), firm (Boost turnover), and his nation (GDP growth). Its actions predicated on the positive rewards for the group.
Furthermore, consequentialist ethics, applies a slightly different method to Asian personnel. Their means of doing things is nearer to the universal egoism. In other words that the choices they are still dependent on their consequences. Nonetheless it maximizes the pleasure of the group, not more than one. Wages attained by workers, can feed households, permit children to visit college and raising living expectations. General egoism permits the association of "egoist" if they have a common aim or interest.
In summary, Asian manufacturers may be used the consequentialist ethic, acquiring decisions based on analysis of the consequences. If the action can be beneficial business for him – incorporating his profit-maximizing, in that case it must execute. Suppliers have to assess the consequences of every decision before applying. Only decisions leading to positive consequences ought to be retained. Producers should not look at the negative effect on their foreign competitors.
The consequentialist ethic can also concern the Western Customers. At the individual level the Western buyer will search the merchandise with the very best value. The consumer is confronted with two choices practical when it really wants to purchase textiles. Either buys the low cost Asian product – frequently of poor quality-. Either buys a Western product, a larger range -ensuring the product quality in general-. To select its product, the buyer can act by egoism or utilitarianism. That is to say that he will depend on consequentialist ethics, analyzing the consequences of his act before acting. If the consumer decides to support the western manufacturers face, it will consume Western. The future customer will therefore seek to take local or national and steer clear of goods imported from Asia.
From an Individual Egoism perspective, the consumer will move towards the least expensive product. The result of this act may be the acquisition of something at the cheapest price offered available. The buyer only thinks the results of his action that straight affect them. It’ll therefore have a problem in using Western.
From an General Egoism perspective, the consumer will measure the impact of purchase for the group. That is to say to his country. It will consume Western because it is what produces the most positive consequences because of their group. Eating local assists stimulate the economy of his country. This may bring about rising employment, wages, for example, which ultimately produces a standard growth for the country.
Utilitarianism theory predicated on the acts, leads customers to ask themselves the next question: "The act of shopping for the Western merchandise, in this context, right now there positive consequences?" (From Wikipedia) The future customer will evaluate the context before acting. The context here is the lack of competitiveness of textile businesses faces the West Asian competition because of higher wage costs. This context has a direct influence on selling price. In his quest protectionist the buyer will buy Western to support its overall economy. This theory ignores the confident consequences before carrying out the act. It is based on your choice context. This theory can be defined by Harsanyi in the next extract:
Utilitarianism theory predicated on rules, leads buyers to ask themselves the following concern: "The adoption of the rule must take in Western did have great consequences?" (From Wikipedia) According to the theory, the changeover to action shouldn’t be based on the results of the act but on the monitoring of a pre-established guideline. The ruling covers each of the effects of the adoption of a rule. This theory is discussed by Harsanyi the following:
If the rule is followed by all consumers on the market, then it’ll maximize the positive implications of these actions. If this rule applies only to a single person or a little number it will not help, nor a great effect.
Consequentialist ethic is based on seeking the maximization of delight. To get this done the agent must measure the future outcomes of his act, before the realization. If satisfied that the property will get maximized by the consequences of his act so he can perform. In the exemplory case of Asian textile maker and the Western buyer, both can adopt a consequentialist philosophy. This might have the result of the object, then they are two players in confirmed market, and they therefore have to interact together.
The analysis of the results of an act prior
to its execution may seem quite practical in the financial framework. In general the study of an economic agent is to maximize its profit, not really its happiness. That is particularly true in the context of a firm whose target is to create wealth. To attain business operates through rules. This helps avoid the unexpected. The actions follow rules and methods. They are hardly ever judged individually.
A Chinese textile maker organizes its production to achieve the best returns while having low labour costs. This firm allows it to become more competitive when it comes to selling price compared to its Western competitors. But also for that it must abandon the qualitative aspect of the merchandise, focusing only on the quantity (economies of scale). However the quality of something creates happiness. That is reflected in the satisfaction of the employee and the pleasure of the purchaser regarding product features (comfort, power …). Consequentialist ethic which relies on the Chinese producer have a highly competitive market, could also justify the opposite strategy. Because www.testmyprep.com of this example, it really is easy to see that consequentialism is not an absolute theory. It is also criticized by some authors.
In the higher than excerpt focuses on the proportion of uncertain when an individual causes a decision. This uncertainty is because of having less information. Indeed, the agent is acting when consequentialist believes that its activities will maximize happiness. Right now to be certain, the officer should be informed of the problem surrounding before acting. That’s not always practical. The agent will make a decision predicated on his morality, but also data that may no more be valid.
The additional limitation of consequentialism highlighted by Ruegger (University of Fribourg) may be the emotional bond that may exist between your actor and another individual involved in the action. The author explains a relationship, or friendship, always guide the choice of the agent. This aspect will be more powerful than the will to check out consequentialist ethics. In the case of Western consumer, this argument may easily be proved. Certainly, if the consumer chose the product with Western could be influenced by the actual fact that work-or a parent-for the Western company that sells the product. He will opt for the product it really is indirectly linked to the detriment of the Asian merchandise.
These arguments can issue the merits of consequentialist ethics. The consequentialism is usually a theory that seeks to market the best actions. But the notion of morally great action seems random. It varies according to the position of the average person faced with a situation. What exactly are the influences experienced by the individual which are implicated here. More precisely: "having less information, which may influence the decision of the agent" (Hare, 1976). The existence of a connection between the agent and another actor in times will influence the ultimate decision (relating to Ruegger). In the case of the Asian maker and customer Western consequentialism also has its limits. The ultimate consumer may judge that would allow him to consume Asian savings and thereby increase its revenue. For the Asian company, it could decide to improve the salaries of its personnel to increase their happiness.
"Consequentialism can be interpreted as a philosophy, however, not as an ethic."
In A Theory of Justice, Rawls challenges utilitarianism. It highlights the actual fact that the actor is the sole judge of its activities according to the theory. But the individual judgments can’t be thought to be necessarily just.
The ethics of virtue is based study knew the character of the individual. This ethic comprises virtues in other words, of character traits. For Aristotle, the four cardinal virtues are courage, modesty, Generosity, and spirit of justice. Today its set of virtues is much longer. The actions of people are considered good when they are regular with these principles. Furthermore to considering the character of the actor must take into account the circumstances of the action.
For example, an honest person is defined as follows:
For Aristotle, the virtuous person is he who find the voice of moderation. Asian Textile maker must follow this path to adopt the ethics of virtue. It must modify its behaviour. Below are a few types of virtuous behaviour. Larger wages and improved functioning conditions. That is to say be fairer.
Increase the standard of products available. To do this we must spend money on machinery, but also in training workers. That is to say, to show courage by taking a different route from Asian competitors.
The Asian company must rethink the way they act to adopt the ethics of virtue. By adopting this ethic, it may present on the market products that meet the expectations of Western buyers: the very best quality products. And also improve its impression. Some producers still use child labour. It hurts their impression. By adopting the ethics of virtue, this situation could change. The product quality can be improved. This can be guaranteed by winning international awards such as for example ISO Standards. The caliber of the task environment and working out of workers may also be improved.
The use of virtue ethics should cause the adoption of virtuous behavior. This may permit the Asian makers, to respond in a different way to Western consumers. This involves a change of impression. Improving the image can give confidence to consumers and therefore attract and maintain them.
Campodonico display in the excerpt below, the place of ethics of virtue today:
In this excerpt, the writer argues that the adoption of the virtues defined by Aristotle continues to be feasible today. An Asian textile maker can adopt the ethics of virtue. The author focuses on the speedily changing environment. But he thinks that ethics described by Aristotle can cope with this kind of context.
However, it should be mentioned that the ethics of virtue isn’t always applicable in the current business environment. Indeed modern day management organizations tend to be based on different ideals â€‹â€‹of ethics. The main example is the "corporate management". It is the management of the company by shareholders. This contact form is becoming increasingly important in modern economies. In this sort of management decisions are often made â€‹â€‹in relation to their potential profitability. On the other hand, decisions are often made by groups (panel of directors, lobbyists …). The decision to act predicated on the judgments of more than a few individuals. This makes it difficult to apply under behavior, as all individuals within an organization don’t necessarily virtues. The ultimate decision may be without ethical virtue. With all this context of virtue ethics seems to be a good notion, but impractical.
He should remember that virtue ethics is certainly another way for the Asian supplier to behave available. She has differences with consequentialism. The main principle of the ethic may be the study of the character of the actor, instead of the results of his actions. The goal is similar, is act morally proper and good. The concepts of virtue, whose bases were created by Aristotle, remain valid right now. But there are major doubts on the likelihood of applied in contemporary company.